Презентація «Топ 10 найцікавіших фактів з історії англійської літератури»
Дана презентація була підготовлена моїм учнем 10 А класу до міського заходу Юність науки. Денис розповідав про 10 найцікавіші факти з історії англійської літератури. Матеріал був викладений дуже оригінальним способом. Всі факти були представлені в порядку зростання від менш захоплюючого до самого захоплюючого і запам'ятовується. Денис зайняв гідне 3 місце в міському дні Науки. До презентаціїдодається конспект, де докладно пояснюється і розкривається кожен файл презентації. Бажаючі можуть познайомитися з історією створення легенди "Трістан і Ізольда", дізнатися про таємниці "Беовульфа", заглянути в минуле і спробувати розшифрувати магічні властивості рун. Чому професія співака була так шанована і шанована серед британців в давнину? Як тоді називали співаків? Що вони виконували? Відповіді на ці та багато інших питань Ви знайдете, познайомившись з цим матеріалом.
Good afternoon. I have prepared the report about the most interesting facts of the history of English literature.
Preparing my report I have learnt a lot of information, which impressed me strongly. I have tried to choose a decade of the most remarkable facts from the history of English literature. So, this top-ten is for your attention.
Сan you imagine that the Anglo-Saxons hadn`t had the literature in the true sense of the word yet by the end of the sixth century? But they used the runes that were very widespread among German tribes. It was a kind of the writing. People believed that they had magical features. There were runic inscriptions on swords, goblets and household goods. In the nineteenth century so-called "runic casket" of Anglo-Saxon origin was found near French town Clermont-Ferrand. This box is decorated with scenes from human life and several verse lines about whalebone from which the casket was made. I have decided to put this information on the tenth place.
The ninth fact refers to the oral folk lore. The ancient habitants of Britain had special magical conjurations with the metrical character, that was useful for remembering. Scientists could find about decade of these conjurations, written in chronicles. They are about good harvest, welfare of the beehive, return of missed beast, fortune during travels and, most often, about escape from illnesses.
The eight place is for information about English singers. Do you know that this profession was very respectful among the ancient British people? There were folk singers- musicians (gleomen) and professional singers from the bodyguard (scops). A scop was one of persons who were close to the king. He preserved old legends and sagas, brought up warriors to be brave during the battle. During feasts scops set near the king and sang ballads about heroes of old times. Sometimes, ruler trusted them to perfom important actions.
The seventh most interesting fact is about «Beowulf». It is one of the greatest old English poems, consisting of 3182 verse lines. So, plot of this poem may be the plot of modern action film. The dreadful monster Grendel attacks and kills Hrothgar's warriors. (Hrothgar is the king of the Dans.) Young warrior Beowulf from Geatland decided to help them . Beowulf and his men spend the night in the Hrothgar`s palace. Young warrior bear no arms, because his opponent hasn`t them. Feigning sleep, Beowulf could tear the hand of monster. Grendel dies. After some time young warrior kills beast's mother.
The most interesting is that there is a mixture of the paganism and the Christianity in «Beowulf». For example, the author tells about some higher being that rules the humanity (He, the Almighty, Giving life) in the fourteenth strophe. But then he suddenly begins to describe Skild`s funeral (Skild is one of characters of this poem) that is conducted, according to pagan beliefs. Scientists draw a conclusion that the author was a Christian but he was under strong influence of old polytheistic religions.
I would note the story of Tristan and Iseult. I have put information about this great poem about love on the sixth place, because it proofs the fact that translations of French romances and their modifications were very widespread in Britain in the Medieval Ages. The story of Tristan and Iseult was very famous. English translation made this legend more short. The English «Sir Tristrem» is a cross between a сhivalric saga and a folk ballad.
What do we know about Robin Hood? He was a free lancer from Sherwood Forest, protector of poor men. But only few people know about his probable prototype. It is mentioned about brave warrior Harward, fighter against Norman conquerors, in the chronicle «Harvard's actions», written in Latin in the twentieth century. This work is very like with legends of Robin Hood in some places. May be, this legendary warrior Harward was a prototype of the king of robbers. So, this fact is on the fifth place of the top-ten.
We used to see people, sometimes animals as the main characters in different works of literature. But can you imagine that Mind, Conscience, Greed, Holy Church, etc. may be main figures of the work? And there are such characters in the great poem «Vision of Piers the Plowman» by monk John Lyndgate. The reason for it is the fact that a medieval man could not understand abstract ideas without these concrete personification. There were neither the Internet, nor the television in this time, after all. This most interesting fact is the forth.
And now it is time for the final part of my report, for three most remarkable, interesting, nice facts from the history of English literature.
Who created works about the Trojan war? Homer and other ancient poets did. But can you imagine, that in England of the fifteenth century poem of this theme appeared? I mean «Troy-Book» by John Lydgate. It is a translation of other poem but translation with additions and modifications. Hector, Achilles and Ajax are shown as knights in this poem. The author denies the chivalrous moral code. Moreover, he criticizes the knighthood, thoughtless attitude to life. Lydgate thinks that a good soldier or diplomat was much more useful than any dashing knight. I have put this information on the ninth line.
I am sure, that almost everybody know about Shakespeare's tragedy «Othello».This masterpiece is about love, jealousy and cruelty. When Venice Moor charmed young Desdemona, he told her about cannibals that eat each other, the anthropophagi, and men whose heads grow beneath their shoulders. Do you know what from source this information is? In the beginning of the fifteenth century «Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevile, Knight» was translated in English. This book was written by French doctor Jehan de Bourgogne. The work was intended to include information about the way to the Holy Land. But author described Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Mesopotamia and other parts of the Orient. How much tall stories it include! The author wrote about dragons, pygmies, cyclopes, Amazons, etc. In spite of absurdity, this book was very popular in England. Even Shakespeare used this information for their masterpieces. This fact is on the ninth place of my top-ten.
The English Renaissance began since the second half of the sixteenth century. It was the era of Spencer's, Marlowe's, Shakespeare's, Johnson's art. One of the most important reasons of this great development was of the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Bourgeois and protestant England won a great victory over feudal and catholic Spain. All Englishmen united for external aggression. The growth of national feelings caused the appearance of the new literature of new bourgeois society. It was the beginning of so-called "Elisabeth's" period. This information is the last. Thanks for attention.